What is DENGUE ?
Dengue is a kind of virus transmitted through the bite of a mosquito known as the Aedes species. Nowadays dengue is considered the leading cause of illness in high-risk areas. Each year about 400 million individuals get infected by dengue and 40,000 die because of it.
Mild dengue fever condition may cause high fever while severe dengue fever (known as dengue hemorrhagic fever) can cause shock (sudden drop in blood pressure), serious bleeding, or eventually death.
- Bone pain
- Vomiting (at least three times within a day)
- Bleeding from gums and nose
- Muscular pain
- Swollen glands
- Laboratory findings of rapid decrease in platelet counts.
Symptoms usually last about for 2-7 days after that they recover from it.
There are four serotypes of dengue that can cause an infection that including (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, AND DENV-4).
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Mosquito to Human
The infection is communicated from mosquitoes to people through the bites of currently tainted female mosquitoes mostly the Aedes Aegypti mosquito. The virus starts its replication process inside the midgut of the mosquito. The extrinsic incubation period (EIP) requires an average temperature of 25-28 degrees Celsius and a time of about 8-12 days. If the mosquito gets infected for one time, becomes able to transmit infection for the rest of its life.
Human to Mosquito
Don’t only the humans, mosquito also gets infected from the people that have DENV in the bloodstream.
- Symptomatic infection
- Pre-symptomatic infection
- Asymptomatic (people with no apparent symptoms).
Dengue outbreak is more rapidly occurring in countries like Africa, America, Asia, Middle East, western pacific islands, Southeast, etc. About 141 countries are affected.
Dengue fever in the past. Previous interaction with dengue fever increases the chances to get the problem again.
SEVERE DENGUE CONDITION
Severe dengue can result in internal bleeding, shock, or even death of the patient. Pregnant women, the elderly population, and infants are more likely to get this condition. It may prove fatal within a few hours and sometimes require care at the hospital.
In this case, you may need
- Electrolyte replacement
- Intravenous (IV Fluid)
- Regular monitoring of blood pressure
- Transfusions in case of blood loss replacement.
- Organ impairment
- Plasma leakage
- Severe Bleeding
- Damage to lungs and liver
- Blood Clots
- Brain damage
- Damage to the lymphatic system
- Circulatory system failure.
- No vaccine available until today for dengue fever instead only avoiding mosquito bites can prevent it.
- Dengue breeding is more favorable in clean and stagnant water, covering all the water storage containers or placing them under shelter.
- Prevent the accumulation of water in the soil surface of potted plants.
- Use insecticide sprays in the home.
- Clearwater if any, in the air cooling units.
- Wear clothing like long sleeve shirts and pants that cover the part of the body.
- Use insects or mosquito repellents both outside and inside the home.
- If you are sleeping outside, try to sleep inside the mosquito bed net.
- Use windows and doors screens that help to keep the mosquitoes out.
- Avoid using heavily scented perfumes or soaps as they may attract mosquitoes towards them.
- Try avoiding outside for so long especially during early evening or dawn or dusk timings.
- Regularly clean and scrub the vase or remove extra water inside it.
- Prevent leaves from blocking areas that may make the water stagnant.
- The living area must be clean and tidy.
- Cover the wet garbage bin and do keep it separate.
- Use anti mosquitoes racket killer to get rid of dengue and other mosquitoes.
- Try to dry your wet garments as soon as possible and keep them away from the dry ones.
- It’s not about keeping your house clean only it involves the cleaning and precautionary measures implementation to the area and city. During the rainy season if you find any of the gutter not being cleaned or heavily filled with water inform your community head or residence welfare association to take the necessary steps.
- If you are having early symptoms of fever, headache, joint and muscle pain do consult your primary physician as soon as possible.
IF A BABY GETS DENGUE FEVER
Person-to-person transmission cannot take place however the pregnant women can transmit the disease to the offspring. Such babies are more prone to pre-term birth, fetal distress, or low birth weight.
Blood tests are done to check the level of antibodies and the presence of infection. A doctor may use a serological or virological test to identify the issue.
WHEN TO VISIT THE DOCTOR
Severe dengue may prove fatal if it lefts are untreated. Seek medical attention immediately if you have recently visited an area that is at high risk of dengue. Warning signs include blood from the gums and nose, stools or vomiting, pain in the stomach, or difficulty in breathing.
There is no specific medicine related to the treatment of dengue. However, we can treat and overcome the symptoms by taking precautionary measures.
If you think that you have dengue fever and the symptoms are mild then take a rest, stay hydrated and drink a lot fluid as possible.